My research has contributed to the conceptual development of populism, and an understanding of its psychological roots. In a series of papers we find that across countries, and different left-wing or right-wing populist parties, we find that low Agreeable individuals are more likely to support populists. Using a survey experiment we find that in particular anti-establishment rhetoric links Agreeableness to populist voting. 

Relevant publications

  • Bakker, B.N., Schumacher, G., & Rooduijn, M. (2021). The populist appeal. Personality and anti-establishment communication. The Journal of Politics., 83(2), 589-601. (Open access)
  • Bakker, B.N., Rooduijn, M., & Schumacher, G. (2016). Personality traits and voting for populist parties: Evidence from the United States, the Netherlands, and Germany. European Journal of Political Research. 55 (2): 302-320. (Open access). Covered on: Monkey Cage; The Science Behind Trump; StukRoodVlees (1); StukRoodVlees (2)